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芫茜祛味又抗菌 降壓健腸抗氧化

剛過完復活節假,接著又到清明節。「清明時節雨紛紛」,在春意盎然的時節吃些清新芳香的食品更覺清爽。近年芫茜從寂寂無聞的配菜,搖身一變成為受到追捧的「潮食」,不少食物都以加入大量芫茜的版本作招徠。其實芫茜除了味道獨特、色澤翠綠外,其健康價值亦不容忽視。

 

芫茜葉籽都能吃 芳香祛味兼抗菌

 

芫荽 (Coriandrum Sativum L.) 又稱香菜、胡荽 ,為繖形科植物。它被認為起源於中東,在亞洲、歐洲、非洲和印度等地均有種植,也是歐、亞及非洲的常見食材。芫荽是草本植物,整棵植物和其種籽都能吃。芫荽籽更是印度咖哩及中東菜式不可或缺的香料,而中國菜則多以芫荽葉入饌。

 

雖然芫荽葉能提供的熱量、纖維及蛋白質並不多,但它富含多種植物營養素如葉酸、多酚、類黃酮等。芫荽每百克含約四毫克胡蘿蔔素,比番茄、豆類和黃瓜高出10倍以上。芫茜富含揮發油如甘露醇 (Mannitol) 、N-乙醛 (N-acetaldehyde) 、糠醛 (Furfural) 和芳樟醇 (Linalool) 等,賦予其獨特的香氣。中醫藥典《本草綱目》亦有所描述:「胡荽辛溫香竄,內通心脾,外達四肢,能辟一切不正之氣,故痘疹出不爽快者,能發之」。

 

芫荽的芳香不只能增添食物的香氣,亦在多國烹調中用作祛味。印度的羊肚、日本的豬大腸、廣東的鲩魚片都會用芫荽先處理以袪除腥臭味。日本有研究分析能祛除豬大腸臭味的化合物,發現芫荽中的(E,E)-2,4-十一烯醛((E,E)-2,4-undecadienal)在10ppb(十億分點,parts per billion)的濃度下就能明顯減低十名受試者感受到的豬大腸臭味至接近完全袪除的程度。

 

除能袪除食物中的腥臭味,含多種抗氧化物及抗菌成份的芫荽更能幫助食物保鮮。巴西有細菌培植研究發現,芫荽提取物能抑制超過80%的致病菌如金黃葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)和白色念珠菌 (Candida albicans),及接近40%的腸道沙門氏菌(Salmonella typhimurium)。中東有研究將芫荽提取物加入雞肉餅中;另一批則加入常用於肉類、防止油和脂肪氧化的抗氧化劑BHT (二丁基羥基甲苯) 作比較。放在4℃環境下九天後發現,沒有加入BHT/芫荽的雞肉餅,蛋白質及脂肪都已明顯氧化,含菌量亦明顯大增至不能食用;而加入芫荽/BHT的雞肉餅在氧化程度及含菌量方面都明顯較少至仍能食用的水平。而加入芫荽提取物的雞肉餅在烹調後,質感和味道上亦沒有大影響。研究團隊指出芫荽能作為天然的食物抗氧化劑,以延長肉類制品的保質期。

 

降壓益腸抗氧化  厭惡芫茜關基因

 

芫荽除能增加香味、保持食物質素外,對健康亦有不少好處。有研究以高糖高鹽飲食餵飼小鼠,令其出現高血脂、高血壓、肥胖等症狀,其中兩組再加上餵食不同份量的芫荽(換算成60公斤的成年人每天吃約115/230克)。結果八周後有進食芫荽組別的體重、總血脂、低密度膽固醇及血壓等都有明顯降低,而血糖反應亦有所改善。高糖高鹽飲食亦令小鼠的腸道益菌如雙歧桿菌(Bifidobacterium) 減少及害菌如瘤胃球菌(Ruminococcus)增加,而有進食芫荽組別却能把這些腸道菌轉變回復正常。可見芫荽對血糖、血脂、以至腸道菌都有一定好處。

 

芫荽亦有利尿作用。有小鼠研究發現芫荽提取物能明顯增加小鼠的排尿量及鈉(Sodium)、鉀(Potassium)和氯(Chloride)離子的排出水平。研究團隊指出芫荽提取物的利尿效果與利尿藥呋塞米(Furosemide)有相當的可比性。因其利尿、抗氧化及與金屬離子螯合的特性,早年日本亦有幾份個案指出,芫荽能協助身體排出重金屬。近年日本有小鼠實驗以芫荽葉提取物餵飼小鼠八週,發現小鼠腎臟中鐵、砷、鎘這些金屬的濃度和氧化壓力有明顯減低,砷水平更降至近乎不能測出的程度。

 

芫荽對健康有不少好處,但其獨特的味道並不是人人能接受。有些人覺得芫荽味道像肥皂/清潔劑而不愛吃。美國有研究比較萬多名(主要是歐洲人種)愛吃和不愛吃芫荽受訪者的基因圖譜,發現他們在第11條染色體中的一個基因與對芫荽的反應有關。這段基因是嗅覺受體(Olfactory receptor, ORA)的基因組,當中ORA6A2是接收醛類(Aldehyde)化合物的受體。而組成芫荽香氣的化合物中有不少是醛類如癸醛和(E)-2-癸烯醛等,故不愛吃芫荽的人有可能是與其嗅覺受體反應有關。

 

雖然芫荽並不是人人愛吃,但能接受的人總被它的清香味道吸引。配搭肉品能去腥之餘亦能增加味道、減少鹽糖調味,其有益化合物如抗氧化物等亦能增進健康。大家不妨在春天利用芫荽入饌,享受其獨特味道及健康好處。

 

 

參考資料/延伸閱讀:

<益生第一關>2022/07/08--『抗氧化物補充劑 保健功能作依歸』

https://hskgene.com/blogs/probiolife-first/antioxidant?_pos=4&_sid=b25522a5e&_ss=r

 

<益生第一關>2021/04/30--『羽衣甘藍益處多 基因決定苦不苦』

https://hskgene.com/blogs/probiolife-first/kale_superfood?_pos=2&_sid=6972ce2e9&_ss=r

 

Easy Reading:

芫荽營養|護腦降血壓5好處全株可食用 這樣吃味道清香不易排斥 | 香港01| 01-23-2023

https://www.hk01.com/article/858667?utm_source=01articlecopy&utm_medium=referral

 

芫荽功效|補腦護心降血糖6大健康好處 5類人慎吃芫荽番荽有別? | 香港01 | 07-01-2021

https://www.hk01.com/article/644186?utm_source=01articlecopy&utm_medium=referral

 

為什麼有些人一看到香菜就討厭? | PanSci 泛科學 |04-27-2017

https://pansci.asia/archives/118332

 

芫荽功效--中醫:芫荽助袪除寒邪 哪2類人忌食?| Yahoo News |01-26-2024

https://hk.news.yahoo.com/%E8%8A%AB%E8%8D%BD%E5%8A%9F%E6%95%88-%E4%B8%AD%E9%86%AB-%E8%8A%AB%E8%8D%BD%E5%8A%A9%E8%A2%AA%E9%99%A4%E5%AF%92%E9%82%AA-%E5%93%AA2%E9%A1%9E%E4%BA%BA%E5%BF%8C%E9%A3%9F-051507037.html

 

Google Images:

 

芫荽 健康  Coriander health

 

學術論文:

Song X, Wang J, Li N, Yu J, Meng F, Wei C, et al. Deciphering the high‐quality genome sequence of coriander that causes controversial feelings. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 2020;18: 1444–1456. doi:10.1111/pbi.13310

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/pbi.13310

 

Mahendra P, Bisht S. Coriandrum sativum: A Daily Use Spice with Great Medicinal Effect. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2011;3: 84–88. doi:10.5530/pj.2011.21.16

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0975357511801069

 

Mahleyuddin NN, Moshawih S, Ming LC, Zulkifly HH, Kifli N, Loy MJ, et al. Coriandrum sativum L.: A Review on Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Cardiovascular Benefits. Molecules. 2022;27: 209. doi:10.3390/molecules27010209

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/27/1/209

 

Eriksson N, Wu S, Do CB, Kiefer AK, Tung JY, Mountain JL, et al. A genetic variant near olfactory receptor genes influences cilantro preference. Flavour. 2012;1: 22. doi:10.1186/2044-7248-1-22

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/2044-7248-1-22

 

Kumari S, Biswas S, Kumar S. Effect of Green Coriander Leaves (Coriandrum sativum) and Sodium Bicarbonate on Deodorization of Goat Rumen Meat. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2020;9: 1182–1186. doi:10.20546/ijcmas.2020.903.138

https://www.ijcmas.com/abstractview.php?ID=16423&vol=9-3-2020&SNo=138

 

Zhang D, Zhong Y. Effects of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Essential Oil on the Quality and Fishy Smells During Refrigerated Storage of Restructured Product from Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Surimi. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters. 2019;11: 1470–1476. doi:10.1166/nnl.2019.3022

https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asp/nnl/2019/00000011/00000010/art00019

 

Kohara K, Kadomoto R, Kozuka H, Sakamoto K, Hayata Y. Deodorizing Effect of Coriander on the Offensive Odor of the Porcine Large Intestine. Food Science and Technology Research. 2006;12: 38–42. doi:10.3136/fstr.12.38

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/fstr/12/1/12_1_38/_article/-char/ja/

 

Ikeura H, Kohara K, Li X-X, Kobayashi F, Hayata Y. Identification of ( E , E )-2,4-Undecadienal from Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) as a Highly Effective Deodorant Compound against the Offensive Odor of Porcine Large Intestine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2010;58: 11014–11017. doi:10.1021/jf102297q

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf102297q

 

Ahmad A, Mahmood N, Hussain M, Aiman U, Al-Mijalli SH, Raza MA, et al. Improvement in oxidative stability and quality characteristics of functional chicken meat product supplemented with aqueous coriander extract. International Journal of Food Properties. 2023;26: 855–865. doi:10.1080/10942912.2023.2189086

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10942912.2023.2189086

 

Melo ACGRD, Santos MDVD, Neto MFDC, Takahashi JA, Ferraz VP, Chagas EA, et al. Phytochemical Trial and Bioactivity of the Essential Oil from Coriander Leaves (Coriandrum Sativum) on Pathogenic Microorganisms. Chemical Engineering Transactions. 2019;75: 403–408. doi:10.3303/CET1975068

https://www.cetjournal.it/index.php/cet/article/view/CET1975068

 

Wang X, Liu Y, Wang Y, Dong X, Wang Y, Yang X, et al. Protective Effect of Coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L.) on High-Fructose and High-Salt Diet-Induced Hypertension: Relevant to Improvement of Renal and Intestinal Function. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2022;70: 3730–3744. doi:10.1021/acs.jafc.2c00267

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jafc.2c00267

 

Nishio R, Tamano H, Morioka H, Takeuchi A, Takeda A. Intake of Heated Leaf Extract of Coriandrum sativum Contributes to Resistance to Oxidative Stress via Decreases in Heavy Metal Concentrations in the Kidney. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2019;74: 204–209. doi:10.1007/s11130-019-00720-2

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11130-019-00720-2

 

Omura Y, Beckman SL. Role of mercury (Hg) in resistant infections & effective treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes family viral infections (and potential treatment for cancer) by removing localized Hg deposits with Chinese parsley and delivering effective antibiotics using various drug uptake enhancement methods. Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research .1995;20: 195–229. doi:10.3727/036012995816357014

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8686573/

 

Omura Y, Shimotsuura Y, Fukuoka A, Fukuoka H, Nomoto T. Significant mercury deposits in internal organs following the removal of dental amalgam, & development of pre-cancer on the gingiva and the sides of the tongue and their represented organs as a result of inadvertent exposure to strong curing light (used to solidify synthetic dental filling material) & effective treatment: a clinical case report, along with organ representation areas for each tooth. Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research. 1996;21: 133–160. doi:10.3727/036012996816356915

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8914687/

 

Thuraisingam S, Sunilson JAJ, Kumari AVAG, Anandarajagopal K. Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis and Diuretic Activity of the Extracts of Coriandrum Sativum Leaves in Wistar Albino Rats. International Research Journal of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences. 2019;3. doi:10.5281/zenodo.3590183

https://zenodo.org/records/3590183

 

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