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益菌短鏈脂肪酸 整腸抗炎又補腦

 

 

人體本身雖不能消化分解膳食纖維,但我們腸道中的益菌却能利用膳食纖維發酵成人類細胞能吸收利用的「短鏈脂肪酸(Short chain fatty acids, SCFA)」。短鏈脂肪酸是指含有少於六個碳分子的脂肪酸;它們是由腸道益菌發酵膳食纖維而成,故主要在大腸中找到。常見的短鏈脂肪酸包括:甲酸(Formic acid)、醋酸,又稱乙酸(Acetic acid)、丙酸(Propionic acid)、丁酸(Butyric acid)、異丁酸(Isobutyric acid)。短鏈脂肪酸在腸道中能為大腸細胞提供能量、促進腸道細胞分化、維持健康腸道黏膜、促進腸道蠕動、抑制害菌及促進益菌生長等。對整體健康而言,短鏈脂肪酸有促進製造血清素、調節身體部分免疫細胞以達致抗炎、抗腫瘤及抗菌等效用。

 

丁酸鹽利腸 減炎抗腫瘤 

很多不同研究發現短鏈脂肪酸對腸道健康十分有幫助,而針對腸道不適的研究,就主要圍繞丁酸鹽。有不少研究探討丁酸鹽作為炎症性腸病(Inflammatory bowel disease),如潰瘍性結腸炎(Ulcerative colitis)和克羅氏病(Crohn's disease)的治療方法。有臨床研究發現,在13名受試的中至輕微克羅氏病患者中,接近七成口服丁酸鹽後,腸道炎症明顯減低、不適症狀亦顯著改善。亦有潰瘍性結腸炎小鼠實驗結果顯示,丁酸鹽能有效減少大腸發炎,因而改善炎症性腸病情況。

由於短鏈脂肪酸主要在大腸裏面產生,因此它和大腸細胞也是有著緊密的關係。有研究發現,短鏈脂肪酸(尤其是丁酸鹽)能透過調控細胞內活動及細胞表面蛋白,以達到抗癌功效。如丁酸鹽和丙酸能重新激活大腸癌細胞上的GPR43蛋白,從而抑制腫瘤生長和誘發癌細胞死亡。從誘發小鼠大腸癌的實驗中亦證實,短鏈脂肪酸有助降低患上大腸癌的風險。 

 

短鏈脂肪酸 改善腦部健康 

腸腦軸(Gut brain axis)是近年的熱門研究方向,短鏈脂肪酸和腦部發展及其疾病亦息息相關。除前文提及短鏈脂肪酸能促進EC細胞產生調控情緒的大腦神經傳遞物質血清素(Serotonin)外;亦有研究發現柏金遜症患者的腸道細菌群改變、糞便中短鏈脂肪酸亦有所降低、腸道亦出現炎症情況;而糞便短鏈脂肪酸的濃度亦與病況有關聯。

最近亦有研究指出,自閉症兒童的腸道益菌如雙歧桿菌(Bifidobacteriales)和長雙歧桿菌(Bifidobacterium longum)及糞便短鏈脂肪酸比正常兒童為低,而害菌梭狀芽孢桿菌(Clostridium)則較高。而服用益生菌及果寡糖FOS後,這些腸道益菌及糞便短鏈脂肪酸水平都有所提升、害菌數量降低;而與自閉症有關的語言、社交及腸道問題症狀亦有所改善。可見腸道微生物及益生元對短鏈脂肪酸水平、以至腦部健康,都有一定裨益。

 

益菌+膳食纖維/益生元=>短鏈脂肪酸

目前科學界發現了74種能產生短鏈脂肪酸的細菌,包括羅斯氏菌屬(Roseburia)、毛螺菌屬(Lachnospira)、普拉梭菌屬(Faecalibacterium)等。這些益菌以發酵膳食纖維來製造對人體有益的短鏈脂肪酸,故能被它們發酵的膳食纖維都被稱為「益生元」(Prebiotics)。

不少實驗都透過糞便樣本裏的短鏈脂肪酸含量,來研究哪種食物物質可提供大量益生元,作為製造短鏈脂肪酸的原料。有一項意大利研究針對地中海飲食模式和短鏈脂肪酸的關係。地中海飲食主要包括:蔬菜、水果、豆類、穀物和魚等等的食物,相對一般以紅肉為主的西方飲食較為健康。153位雜食、素食和純素人士的研究結果顯示,進食較多植物性食品及採納地中海飲食模式的人士,腸道內益菌相關代謝物(如短鏈脂肪酸)的含量更高。含有抗性澱粉的燕麥和豆類、蔬果植物細胞上的多醣等,亦富含益生元,能給益生菌去製造短鏈脂肪酸。

 

雖然短鏈脂肪酸的詳細機制仍有待進一步研究,但從不少研究報告中可知,短鏈脂肪酸對身體的各部分都有不同程度的好處。大家可透過增加進食富含纖維及豐富益生菌的食物,如蔬菜、乳酪、泡菜等食品,或定期服用益生菌補充劑;以保持有益平衡的腸道菌群、產生足夠短鏈脂肪酸去維持整體健康。 

 

 精簡版於2021年3月19日晴報刊登

 

參考資料/延伸閱讀: 

<益生第一關>2019/10/18--『健脾止瀉的女性恩物』 

https://hskgene.com/blogs/probiolife-first/lotus_seeds  

 

<益生第一關>2020/01/22--『膳食纖維種類多 腸道菌最佳拍檔』 

https://hskgene.com/blogs/probiolife-first/dietaryfiber_microbiome   

 

<益生第一關>2018/04/13--『吃出幸福——血清素』

https://hskgene.com/blogs/probiolife-first/serotonin

 

<益生第一關>2019/03/01--『要減肥,先抗「炎」』

https://hskgene.com/blogs/probiolife-first/chronic_inflammation

 

<益生第一關>2019/11/08--『紅肉去與留』 

https://hskgene.com/blogs/probiolife-first/red-meat  

 

<益生第一關>2020/10/23--『素」·「營」為先(一) : 纖維丶蛋白質丶維他命B12

https://hskgene.com/blogs/probiolife-first/vegetarian_nutrition_1

 

Easy Reading: 

How Short-Chain Fatty Acids Affect Health and Weight | 2016.04.02 | Healthline 

https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/short-chain-fatty-acids-101  

 

The role of short-chain fatty acids in the gut-brain axis | 2019.07.15 | MicrobiomePost 

https://microbiomepost.com/the-role-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-the-gut-brain-axis/  

 

What Are Short-Chain Fatty Acids And Why Should You Care? | 2020.12.19 | atlasbiomed 

https://atlasbiomed.com/blog/what-are-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-why-should-you-care/  

 

淺談短鏈脂肪酸與膳食纖維攝取 | 2021.03.01 | 林口長庚營養治療科營養師 盧珈伶

https://www.cgmh.org.tw/cgmn/category.asp?id_seq=1605014#.YFBkM5sRUdU

 

益生菌產生的短鏈脂肪酸有益健康?| 2019.11.05 | 安永生活誌-江奕賢 營養師 |https://life.anyongfresh.com/probiotics-dietary-fiber-gut-health/

 

Google Images: 

短鏈脂肪酸 Short chain fatty acid 

 

學術論文: 

Aho VTE, Houser MC, Pereira PAB, Chang J, Rudi K, Paulin L, et al. Relationships of gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids, inflammation, and the gut barrier in Parkinson’s disease. Molecular Neurodegeneration. 2021;16: 6. doi:10.1186/s13024-021-00427-6

https://molecularneurodegeneration.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13024-021-00427-6  

 

Cook SI, Sellin JH. Review article: short chain fatty acids in health and disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1998;12: 499–507. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2036.1998.00337.x

https://europepmc.org/article/med/9678808  

 

Filippis FD, Pellegrini N, Vannini L, Jeffery IB, Storia AL, Laghi L, et al. High-level adherence to a Mediterranean diet beneficially impacts the gut microbiota and associated metabolome. Gut. 2016;65: 1812–1821. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2015-309957

https://gut.bmj.com/content/65/11/1812.short?casa_token=aSHrd-_4Y4QAAAAA:GPuLbGZq-D_bhgAKUkPRa1_k1ep1BiX50dFkXwv8xlwxVTxUkqVnB973k68xCP5Pv_uDdI9Mle0d  

 

McOrist AL, Miller RB, Bird AR, Keogh JB, Noakes M, Topping DL, et al. Fecal Butyrate Levels Vary Widely among Individuals but Are Usually Increased by a Diet High in Resistant Starch. The Journal of Nutrition. 2011;141: 883–889. doi:10.3945/jn.110.128504

https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.110.128504  

 

Ly6Chi Monocytes Provide a Link between Antibiotic-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis. Cell Reports. 2016;15: 1945–1956. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2016.04.074

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211124716305186  

 

Parada Venegas D, De la Fuente MK, Landskron G, González MJ, Quera R, Dijkstra G, et al. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs)-Mediated Gut Epithelial and Immune Regulation and Its Relevance for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Front Immunol. 2019;10: 277. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2019.00277

https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00277  

 

Russo E, Giudici F, Fiorindi C, Ficari F, Scaringi S, Amedei A. Immunomodulating Activity and Therapeutic Effects of Short Chain Fatty Acids and Tryptophan Post-biotics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Front Immunol. 2019;10. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2019.02754

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02754/full  

 

Sabatino AD, Morera R, Ciccocioppo R, Cazzola P, Gotti S, Tinozzi FP, et al. Oral butyrate for mildly to moderately active Crohn’s disease. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2005;22: 789–794. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02639.x

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02639.x  

 

Silva YP, Bernardi A, Frozza RL. The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids From Gut Microbiota in Gut-Brain Communication. Front Endocrinol. 2020;11. doi:10.3389/fendo.2020.00025

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2020.00025/full  

 

Tang Y, Chen Y, Jiang H, Robbins GT, Nie D. G-protein-coupled receptor for short-chain fatty acids suppresses colon cancer. International Journal of Cancer. 2011;128: 847–856. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25638

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ijc.25638  

 

Vieira ELM, Leonel AJ, Sad AP, Beltrão NRM, Costa TF, Ferreira TMR, et al. Oral administration of sodium butyrate attenuates inflammation and mucosal lesion in experimental acute ulcerative colitis. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2012;23: 430–436. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2011.01.007

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 Wang Y, Li N, Yang J-J, Zhao D-M, Chen B, Zhang G-Q, et al. Probiotics and fructo-oligosaccharide intervention modulate the microbiota-gut brain axis to improve autism spectrum reducing also the hyper-serotonergic state and the dopamine metabolism disorder. Pharmacological Research. 2020;157: 104784. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104784

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