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益生菌增強免疫 防感染緩長新冠

益生菌增強免疫 防感染緩長新冠

近日本港新冠疫情有上升趨勢,單日感染人數已到三千水平。在經歷多波疫情後,大家都知道要接種疫苗、注意個人及環境衛生(戴口罩/勤洗手)來預防感染/重症;但亦有不少人仍然「中招」。以飲食維持腸道及免疫系統健康,對防治新冠病毒引發的疾病亦十分重要。

接種疫苗防感染  免疫反應至重要

香港的第一針疫苗接種率已接近93%,第二針都接近90%。疫苗對接種者的保護效能因人而異,而這亦和免疫產生的抗體反應不同有關。德國有研究分析千多名醫護人員在第一到三針後一個月的IgG抗體水平及半年內感染新冠Omicron病毒的風險。發現在第三針後一個月後血液中IgG抗體水平及中和能力較低的受試者,其感染風險比正常水平的高出十倍。

前文曾介紹益纖菌中富含的雙歧桿菌HN019(Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019)對免疫系統的抗體反應亦有幫助。有研究發現食用HN019小鼠血液中,受霍亂毒素刺激產生的總抗體量,明顯比沒服食益生菌的高兩倍以上。亦有研究發現,有食用HN019小豬糞便中的IgAIgGIgM抗體水平明顯較高。可見HN019或能有助抗體反應,對抗病毒。

健康生活減重症 益生菌助新冠防治 

埃及有研究利用問卷訪問200名新冠患者染疫前一年的生活飲食習慣,再和其新冠病情作比對。發現進食含益生元食品、少食糖、有運動習慣和充足睡眠、以及少用抗生素的受試者,新冠症狀較輕微和病毒清除都較快。而有食用含益生菌食品如乳酪習慣的患者,感染新冠病毒的症狀更輕微。故平日的生活習慣與飲食,尤其是益生菌攝取,亦與新冠病毒的症狀反應有關。

近期世界各地亦正在進行不少有關益生菌與新冠防治的臨床研究。據美國臨床實驗數據庫統計,現時有31個已登記的臨床研究,當中14個己完成測試,部份亦己發表結果。例如美國有前期研究給密切接觸者服用鼠李糖乳桿菌GGLactobacillus rhamnosus GG, LGG,發現服用益生菌組別的病徵較少。俄羅斯和意大利分別有研究以包含多種乳酸菌及雙歧桿菌的綜合益生菌,能減少新冠患者的腹瀉不適。墨西哥和西班牙亦有益生菌臨床研究發現,多種不同的益生菌都可有縮短症狀周期、減少重症及炎症和幫助恢復等效用。現時發現益生菌對於新冠病毒症狀有一定幫助,但其詳細作用及機制仍有待進一步研究。

變種病毒傳播增   重覆感染有可能

本港有不少市民在幾個月前已經感染過BA.2新冠病毒,但現在仍然有機會感染新的BA.4/5亞種。有綜合研究分析25份來自不同國家/地區的研究報告,推算新冠病毒的復陽率(90日內核酸再次陽性)為13.3%,而重復感染率為0.3%。丹麥有研究再仔細分析沒有接種疫苗的患者,感染不同亞種病毒再感染的風險。發Alpha, Delta和Omicron 超過一年的再感染的保護率分別為88.3%,71.4%和19%;而頭一次感染有症狀的患者,比輕症和無症狀患者再感染的機會為低。

士耳其亦有類似硏究指出,再感染Omicron 的機率比Alpha高出30倍、亦比Delta高10倍。意大利研究則指出有接種疫苗人士的再感染率明顯低1.8倍。而再感染的病情嚴重程度,一般比頭一次感染輕微。

「長新冠」腸道菌失衡  益生菌助缓症狀

除了重覆感染外,新冠康復者亦可能有「長新冠」的問題。意大利有研究追踪二百多名新冠康復者一年,發現一年後仍然有四成康復者有超過一項「長新冠」症狀,如倦怠、咳嗽、腸胃不適、失眠等。德國研究亦指出,在康復6-12個月後,18.8%患者仍維持高「長新冠」指數、48.2%為中度,而只有32.9%患者「長新冠」指數降至輕微或完全沒有。

先前亦曾提及,香港中文大學研究發現,「長新冠」症狀與腸道菌失衡有所關聯;服用益生菌或可改善腸道微生態,以至「長新冠」症狀。英國有研究給126名長新冠患者服用多種乳酸菌(Lactobacillus)及益生元30天後,患者的倦怠、咳嗽及腸胃不適症狀明顯有所改善。印度亦有硏究給200名有倦怠症狀的新冠康復者,服用包含多種芽胞乳酸菌(Bacillus) 及酶(Enzyme)的營養補充劑或安慰劑14天。發現九成服用含益生菌補充劑的受試者,倦怠指數明顯下降。

由此可見,補充益生菌如富含HN019的益纖菌及益緒寧PS128,不只可改善腸道微生態或寧神安睡、紓緩情緒,更可增強免疫力。而且或對預防病毒的抗體反應,以及「長新冠」有關的腸道失衡及相關症狀有所助益。大家要好好使用益生菌,應付疫情及不幸感染而康復後的長新冠症候。

參考資料/延伸閱讀:

<益生第一關>2022/04/01--『染疫後遺長新冠 [HN019] 益生菌恢復健康』

https://hskgene.com/blogs/probiolife-first/long_covid

<益生第一關>2022/03/11--『打3針增強免疫 「HN019」益生菌添助力』

https://hskgene.com/blogs/probiolife-first/3rd-vaccination

<益生第一關>2021/12/10--『益生菌促進益菌 適當補充保健康』

https://hskgene.com/blogs/probiolife-first/beneficial_bacteria

<益生第一關>2022/02/18--『「PS128」益生菌紓壓助眠 身心健康齊抗疫』

https://hskgene.com/blogs/probiolife-first/sleep_quality

 

Easy Reading:

身體經歷長時間發炎 醫師教你飲食6大重點對抗新冠後遺症不適|元氣網 |06-12-2022

https://health.udn.com/health/story/120952/6378900

Long COVID: Gut bacteria may be key |Medical News Today| 02-01-2022

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/gut-bacteria-may-play-a-role-in-the-development-of-long-covid#Limitations-of-the-study

Gut Microbes May Help Fight Long COVID | Psychology Today | 02-22-2022

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/mood-microbe/202202/gut-microbes-may-help-fight-long-covid

 

Google Images:

probiotics gut COVID 益生菌 新冠後遺症

 

學術論文:

Möhlendick B, Čiučiulkaitė I, Elsner C, Anastasiou OE, Trilling M, Wagner B, et al. Individuals With Weaker Antibody Responses After Booster Immunization Are Prone to Omicron Breakthrough Infections. Front Immunol. 2022;13: 907343. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2022.907343

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2022.907343/full

 

Hegazy M, Ahmed Ashoush O, Tharwat Hegazy M, Wahba M, Lithy RM, Abdel-Hamid HM, et al. Beyond probiotic legend: ESSAP gut microbiota health score to delineate SARS-COV-2 infection severity. Br J Nutr. : 1–10. doi:10.1017/S0007114521001926

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8410748/

 

Sotoodeh Ghorbani S, Taherpour N, Bayat S, Ghajari H, Mohseni P, Hashemi Nazari SS. Epidemiologic characteristics of cases with reinfection, recurrence, and hospital readmission due to COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Med Virol. 2022;94: 44–53. doi:10.1002/jmv.27281

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34411311/

 

Malhotra S, Mani K, Lodha R, Bakhshi S, Mathur VP, Gupta P, et al. COVID-19 infection, and reinfection, and vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection among health care workers in the setting of omicron variant transmission in New Delhi, India. The Lancet Regional Health - Southeast Asia. 2022; 100023. doi:10.1016/j.lansea.2022.100023

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2772368222000282

 

Michlmayr D, Hansen CH, Gubbels SM, Valentiner-Branth P, Bager P, Obel N, et al. Observed protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection following a primary infection: A Danish cohort study among unvaccinated using two years of nationwide PCR-test data. The Lancet Regional Health - Europe. 2022;20: 100452. doi:10.1016/j.lanepe.2022.100452

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666776222001466

 

Özüdoğru O, Bahçe YG, Acer Ö. SARS CoV-2 reinfection rate is higher in the Omicron variant than in the Alpha and Delta variants. Ir J Med Sci. 2022 [cited 27 Jul 2022]. doi:10.1007/s11845-022-03060-4

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11845-022-03060-4

 

Lacy J, Mensah A, Simmons R, Andrews N, Siddiqui MR, Bukasa A, et al. Protective effect of a first SARS-CoV-2 infection from reinfection: a matched retrospective cohort study using PCR testing data in England. Epidemiology & Infection. 2022;150. doi:10.1017/S0950268822000966

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection/article/protective-effect-of-a-first-sarscov2-infection-from-reinfection-a-matched-retrospective-cohort-study-using-pcr-testing-data-in-england/DF530C4872618911F20C4A84CB604188

 

Fumagalli C, Zocchi C, Tassetti L, Silverii MV, Amato C, Livi L, et al. Factors associated with persistence of symptoms 1 year after COVID-19: A longitudinal, prospective phone-based interview follow-up cohort study. European Journal of Internal Medicine. 2022;97: 36–41. doi:10.1016/j.ejim.2021.11.018

 

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Bahmer T, Borzikowsky C, Lieb W, Horn A, Krist L, Fricke J, et al. Severity, predictors and clinical correlates of Post-COVID syndrome (PCS) in Germany: A prospective, multi-centre, population-based cohort study. eClinicalMedicine. 2022;51: 101549. doi:10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101549

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Thomas R, Aldous JWF, Forsyth R, Chater AM, Williams M. The influence of a blend of probiotic lactobacillus and prebiotic inulin on the duration and severity of symptoms among individuals with COVID-19. 2021 [cited 27 Jul 2022]. Available: https://uobrep.openrepository.com/handle/10547/625291

https://uobrep.openrepository.com/handle/10547/625291

 

Xavier-Santos D, Padilha M, Fabiano GA, Vinderola G, Gomes Cruz A, Sivieri K, et al. Evidences and perspectives of the use of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and postbiotics as adjuvants for prevention and treatment of COVID-19: A bibliometric analysis and systematic review. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2022;120: 174–192. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2021.12.033

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Wischmeyer PE, Tang H, Ren Y, Bohannon L, Ramirez ZE, Andermann TM, et al. Daily Lactobacillus Probiotic versus Placebo in COVID-19-Exposed Household Contacts (PROTECT-EHC): A Randomized Clinical Trial. medRxiv; 2022 Jan p. 2022.01.04.21268275. Available: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.01.04.21268275v1

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